What Are the Different Types of Cancer Surgery? Risk, Recovery & More
Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Cancer affects different organs and parts of the body, needing doctors to perform surgeries to remove the cancerous or potentially cancerous tumors.
Oncologists also perform surgeries to diagnose, stage, and provide cancer treatment. More often than not, oncologists combine cancer surgeries with medications and other treatments.
When consulting the best onco surgeons in India, patients must keep an open mind for the diagnosis. Tumors can be malignant or benign. Either way, doctors have to be sure of what they are dealing with.
A cancer diagnosis is life-changing, and patients need to find the best hospitals in India for treatment. Max Healthcare offers the following surgeries for cancer patients:
- Diagnostic Surgery
Diagnostic surgery determines whether a tumor is cancerous or not. First, oncologists need to collect tissue samples to send to the lab. The pathologist at the lab tests the sample to decode the cancer type and the cancer stage.
- Staging Surgery
Oncologists need to know the extent of cancer in the patient’s body. Therefore, they use methods such as laparoscopy to see the inside of the body. In the process, surgeons also collect tissue samples to confirm the spread of cancer.
- Debulking Surgery
Cancers affect different organs in the body. As a result, oncologists recommend removing a portion of the tumor instead of the entire mass. Removing the entire tumor could cause damage to vital organs. Chemotherapy and other treatments follow after debulking to get rid of remaining cancer.
- Curative Surgery
Cancers such as breast cancer are specific to one part of the body. It allows the surgeon to remove the tumor from the affected area or remove the entire breast if required.
Curative surgeries are the primary option given to patients whose tumors are localized. However, oncologists continue with radiation after the surgery.
- Palliative Surgery
Although it’s vital to have an early cancer diagnosis, that is not always the case for everyone. Some patients get diagnosed at an advanced stage.
Palliative surgeries don’t cure cancer. Instead, they alleviate discomfort and try to solve other medical issues caused by cancer.
- Supportive Surgery
Like palliative surgeries, supportive surgeries do not cure cancer. Instead, they supplement cancer treatments. For example, oncologists might suggest inserting a catheter to help the patient during chemotherapy.
- Restorative Surgery
When the surgeon removes the tumor, that part of the body does not remain the same. In breast cancer cases, patients remain without one breast (sometimes both).
The best onco surgeons in India recommend restorative surgeries to restore the physical shape of the affected areas. These surgeries aim to make the patient look and feel better.
- Preventive Surgery
Even though some tumors are non-cancerous, oncologists recommend surgeries to remove them. A benign tumor can quickly become malignant if left untreated.
To prevent such an occurrence the surgeons remove all tissue around the tumor. The benign state might be a precursor to malignancy.
Cryosurgery is not among the common surgeries for cancer. This surgery involves using extremely low temperatures to destroy cancer cells. Most skin and cervical cancer cases use this technique.
In the case of skin cancer, oncologists place liquid nitrogen on the skin. If the cancer is in the body, a cryoprobe goes into the body to touch the tumor directly and introduce liquid nitrogen.
- Laser Surgery
Laser surgery is accurate and does not damage nearby tissues. Light beams work better than instruments to do the following:
- Destroy tumors
- Shrink tumors
- Activate drugs to destroy cancerous cells
Laser surgeries are precise. Therefore, surgeons use the laser technique to reach areas that no other method can reach. Laser surgeries are common to access the skin, larynx, and rectum.
Electrosurgery uses electric currents to treat cancer by killing the cells. Oral and skin cancer are the common types of cancer treated with electrosurgery.
Risks Involved with Cancer Surgeries
Although oncologists and surgeons try their best to eliminate risks during and after surgery, some issues might occur. If the surgery is complex, there are higher chances of side effects.
Usually, biopsies and minor operations to remove tissues have lower risks. Generally, possible side effects include:
- Blood clots
- Pain at the site
- Damage to tissues near the site
- Organ damage
- Reactions to drugs
- Slow recovery
Long-term risks differ depending on the type of surgery conducted on the patient. For example, if the surgery involves reproductive organs, patients need to ask doctors about their chances of conceiving afterward.
The Recovery Period
Every surgery, however minor, has a recovery period. Less invasive procedures like biopsies take a few days or up to a week to recover. Major surgeries take months to recover. However, Max Healthcare has the best preoperative and postoperative programs for patients.
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